Protocol for treating the psychological consequences of halitosis complaint

Edition v31n1  |  Year 2021  |  Category: Original Article  |  Page 89 to 108


Maurício Duarte da Conceição, Fernanda Salgueiredo Giudice,Lucas de Francisco Carvalho


INTRODUCTION: People with halitosis suffer various consequences, incurring social, professional, and affective limitations that impair their confidence, spontaneity, and self-esteem. However, the existing treatment protocols focus on treating halitosis alone, rather than its psychological consequences. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to present a new protocol for treating the consequences of halitosis, as well as investigating its clinical application. METHODS: After briefly reviewing existing halitosis classifications and their limitations, this paper presents new classifications and techniques appropriate for the present protocol, such as the use of in vivo exposure, adequate to halitosis treatment. A total of 156 people complaining of halitosis were selected. The participants breath was evaluated using the organoleptic test and Halimeter®. The psychological consequences of halitosis were assessed using the Halitosis Consequences Inventory (ICH). The symptoms of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) were measured using the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) and its short version (Mini-SPIN). RESULTS: The results showed that all participants had tongue coating or tongue biofilm. Of the 156 volunteers, 74.38% had halitosis (n=116), of whom 100% had oral halitosis, and 3.21% had oral halitosis simultaneous with extraoral halitosis (n=5). A comparison between the pre- and post-treatment results indicated that the protocol was effective to treat bad breath as well as the feeling of insecurity, since significantly decreased the psychological consequences of halitosis and SAD symptoms; 62.6% of participants reported a significant improvement in their confidence and spontaneity at the end of treatment. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings were most effective for those who followed the treatment guidelines strictly.


Halitosis. Psychological Tests. Clinical Protocols. Phobic Disorders.Phobia, Social.

How to quote

Conceição MD, Giudice FS, Carvalho LF. Protocol for treating the psychological consequences of halitosis complaint. Braz J Periodontol. 2021 Jan-Apr;31(1):89-108.

To share:

Related articles: